What are IPM's?

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an enviromentally sensitive approach to pest management that makes use of a combination of practises. The type and behaviour of the pest is taken into account, along with the available methods of control, as well as the sensitivity of the product affected. A program is put into place to manage pest by the most economical means, with the least possible effect on people, property, product and the environment. It requires evaluations, decisions and controls.


Set Action Thresholds

Right from the start, a point at which pest control actions will be taken must be established. An action threshold must be determined, and may not mean that action is needed in the event of a single sighting.


Monitor and Identify Pests

Not all insects and other living organisms require control, and IPM programs work to monitor for pests and identify them properly. This will eliminate unnecessary action measures.



As a first line of pest control, outdoor and indoor conditions condusive to pest infestations must be managed. Often minor changes can make the site less attractive or limit the pest's access into the site.



Once pests have been identified and prevention methods are no longer effectve, methods of control that are least hazardous are employed first. If, after monitoring, these are found to be inadaquate, targeted treatments of pesticides must be done, with broadcast spraying a last resort.




  • PRP (GMP)

PRP = Pre-Requisite Programs (also includes GMP = Good Manufacturing Practices).

PRP is an UMBRELLA TERM to describe ALL ACTIVITIES, other than specific HACCP plans, which affect FOOD HYGIENE, QUALITY AND SAFETY. (These activities include Pest Control and Sanitation).

PRP’s form the foundation upon which a HACCP system should be built, and may be known by a variety of terms, including Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), Good Hygiene Practice (GHP), and form part of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The latter has a broader meaning and may include activities which affect quality in general.

The effective application of PRP (GMP) allows the HACCP plan to focus on the critical determination of food safety. PRP should consist of documented systems, considerations or programs which are monitored and reviewed on a regular basis. Part of this process is likely to involve auditing, and the correct implementation of PRP’s is an important requirement. Reliance on well-developed and consistently performed PRP’s can simplify HACCP plans considerably. 


  • HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)

This is a common sense approach to food safety that minimizes risks but does not provide zero risks. HACCP is not a stand-alone.

  • HACCP is an internationally accepted Food Safety Management System.
  • HACCP identifies and assesses potential food safety hazards (Critical Control Points) and the significance thereof (i.e. can it cause death, illness or injury), and determines appropriate control measures.


  • PRP vs. HACCP
  • PRP’s are not CCP’s (Critical Control Points)
  • PRP’s are managed outside HACCP plans
  • Well managed PRP’s can simplify HACCP plans